Intermediate Grammar #38: 단어 사동 (~이/히/리/기/우/추~) Causative Verbs “to make/let”

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단어 사동 (~이/히/리/기/우/추~):

  • The subject doesn't act of their own will, but because someone or something else caused or made them
  • Equivalent to "to make/let/cause someone to do something"

Usage:

  • These Verbs MUST BE MEMORIZED
  • Passive and Causative verbs are IDENTICAL - you can tell them apart by usage
  • Some of the most common identical Passive and Causative verbs are:
    • 보다: 보이다
    • 듣다: 들리다
    • 읽다: 읽히다
    • 씻다: 씻기다
  • Make ANYTHING Causative by adding ~아/어 주다

Tenses:

  • N2이/가 N1을/를 V + ~이/히/리/기/우/추~
  • N2이/가 N1을/를 A + ~이/히/리/기/우/추~
  • N3이/가 N1에게 N2을/를 V + ~이/히/리/기/우/추~

아빠 (Daddy) Examples:

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  1. 먹이다 (to feed): 엄마가 제나가 육개월이되었을 때 이유식을 먹였어요. When June came around, Mom started feeding Jenna baby food.
  2. 죽이다 (to kill): 이삭이가 바퀴벌레를 죽였다. Isaac killed the cockroach.
  3. 보이다 (to show): 이삭이가 말을 잘 들으면 아이패드를 보여줘요. When Isaac listens well, we show him the iPad.
  4. 속이다 (to deceive): 하지만 가끔 이삭이가 아빠 엄마를 속여요. But sometimes he tries to deceive Mom and Dad.
  5. 녹이다 (to make melt): 우리 집에서 발렌타인즈데이 때 전자레인지에 초콜릿을 녹여서 새로운 사탕을 만들 수 있어요. On Valentine's Day at our house we can melt chocolate in our microwave to make new candies.
  6. 끊이다 (to make boil): 집에 돌아가자마자 배고프면 엄마가 라면을 끊여요. If I'm hungry as soon as I get home, Mom starts boiling ramen.
  7. 붙이다 (to stick/affix): 주일마다 이삭이가 교회에서 만든것을 냉장고에 붙여요. Every Sunday, whatever Isaac makes at church we stick on the fridge.
  8. 읽히다 (to make read): 매일 밤 자기 전에 침대에서 내가 이삭이에게 영어나 한국어 책 읽혀요. Every night before sleeping, I lay on the bed with Isaac and make him read English or Korean books.
  9. 앉히다 (to seat): 매일 아침 엄마가 제나를 아기 의자에 앉혀요. Every morning, Mommy seats Jenna in her baby chair.
  10. 눕히다 (to put to bed): 주말마다 세 시쯤 엄마가 낮잠을 위해 이삭이와 제나를 눕혀요. Every weekend around 3pm, Mommy puts Isaac and Jenna to bed for a nap.
  11. 입히다 (to dress): 언제나 가족이 나가고 싶으면 엄마 아빠가 제나와 이삭이 옷을입혀요. Whenever our family wants to go out, Mom and Dad have to dress Isaac and Jenna.
  12. 익히다 (to make ripe/boil/cook): ---
  13. 맞히다 (to hit/guess correctly): ---
  14. 넓히다 (to widen): ---
  15. 알리다 (to make known): 여름 방학에는 아빠가 이삭이에게 수학을 알려주고 싶다. During the summer vacation, Daddy wants to teach Isaac some math.
  16. 살리다 (to let live): 어느 날 밖에 놀이터에서 다친 새를 봐서 우리 집으로 데려 와 살려 주었어요. One day while outside at the playground, we saw an injured bird and took him to our house to let him live.
  17. 울리다 (to make cry): 이삭이가 제나를 때려서 울렸어요. Jenna cried because Isaac hit her.
  18. 들리다 (to make heard): 제나는 낮잠을 잔 후에 정말 조용히 울어서 방 문을 열어 두어야 제나 목소리가 들려요. After Jenna sleeps her crying is very quiet, so open the door a little so her voice can be heard.
  19. 걸리다 (to make walk): 이삭이가 아기였을 때 아빠가 이삭이를 진짜 빨리 걸리고 싶었어요. When Isaac was a baby, Daddy really wanted to make Isaac walk quickly.
  20. 놀리다 (to let play): 이삭이가 너무 일찍 일어나면 아빠가 이삭이를 혼자 놀려요. If Isaac wakes up really early, Daddy makes Isaac play by himself.
  21. 돌리다 (to turn): 때때로 운동장에 갈 때 이삭이가 유모차를 밀고 돌려요. Sometimes when we go to the exercise field, Isaac pushes and turns the baby carriage.
  22. 웃기다 (to make laugh): 이삭이는 정말 장난꾸러기여서 우리를 항상 웃겨요. Isaac's a really silly, naughty boy that he always makes us laugh.
  23. 맡기다 (to entrust): 엄마가 아빠를 정말 사랑하고 많은 힘든 경험을 같이 하면서 신뢰를 쌓았기 때문에 아빠에게 아이를 맡기고 밖에 나갈 수 있어요. Mommy loves Daddy so much and they've experienced so many difficult times together that she's gained confidence in him and entrusts him with the kids so she can go out.
  24. 벗기다 (to cause to take off): 운동장에 갔다오면 신발을 벗겨 주세요. As soon as we get home from the exercise field, take off your shoes please.
  25. 씻기다 (to have a person wash): 이삭이가 영화를 보거나 책을 읽기 전에 씻겨 주세요. Before Isaac watches a video or reads a book, please have Isaac wash.
  26. 굶기다 (to let starve): 이삭이가 엄마가 요리한 음식이 싫어서 안 먹으려고 하면 아빠가 이삭이 저녁 밥을 굶겨요. When Isaac doesn't like the food that Mommy cooks and doesn't want to eat it, Daddy lets him starve for dinner.
  27. 감기다 (to wash someone's hair): 아빠가 아이 머리를 감기는건 싫어하지만 다른 사람이 아빠 머리를 감겨주면 좋아해요. Daddy doesn't like to wash the kids' hair but if someone else washes Daddy's hair, he loves it.
  28. 남기다 (to leave behind): ---
  29. 깨우다 (to wake someone): 아침에 집에서 아이가 엄마 아빠를 깨우면 좋지 않지만 호텔에서 해가 우리를 깨우면 참 좋죠. In the morning at home, it's no fun if the kids wake up Mom and Dad, but if we're in a hotel and the sun wakes us up in the morning, it's wonderful.
  30. 재우다 (to put to sleep): 제나가 너무 피곤하면 아빠가 아기띠로 제나를 재워요. When Jenna is really tired, Daddy puts her to sleep in the baby carrier.
  31. 태우다 (to give a ride): 아, 죄송해요. 내가 너를 태워주고 싶지만 차 뒷 자리에 아기 카시트 두개가 있어서 못 태워요. Oh, I'm really sorry. I really want to give you a ride but because I have two baby car seats in the back, I can't.
  32. 세우다 (to make stand/stop): ---
  33. 씌우다 (to cover with/put on): ---
  34. 늦추다 (to delay): 처음에 아기가 생겼을 때는 항상 계획을 늦췄는데 요즘은 익숙해져서 안 늦춰요. When we first had kids, we were always delayed for our appointments, but lately we've gotten used to it and aren't so late anymore.
  35. 낮추다 (to lower): 제나가 자라면서 키가 커졌기 때문에 아기 침대를 낮춰야 겠어요. While Jenna is growing up, because she gets bigger, we have to lower the baby bed.

**These are notes from Korean Grammar in Use: Intermediate. For more in-depth explanations, buy the book.

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