Intermediate Grammar #35: 단어 피동 (~이/히/리/기~) “was/is” in some state (Passive verbs)

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단어 피동 (~이/히/리/기~):

  • These are Passive verbs – either some indirect action caused them OR the action is the result/effect of another action
  • Equivalent to “is/was” in some state (for example “was closed” = 닫다)


**NOTE: While the following are good examples of usage and tenses, for the most part the Passive verbs MUST ALL BE MEMORIZED in order to use them properly.

  • N2이/가 N1에/게 V + ~이/히/리/기~
    Includes 쫓기다 (to be pursued), 먹히다 (to be eaten), 잡히다 (to be caught), 안기다 (to be hugged) , 읽히다 (to be read)
  • N이/가 V + ~이/히/리/기~
    Includes 들리다 (to be heard), 보이다 (to be seen), 바뀌다 (to be changed), 막히다 (to be blocked), 팔리다 (to be sold), 풀리다 (to be released), 끊기다 (to be cut off), 열리다 (to be opened), 잠기다 (to be locked), 닫히다 (to be shut)
  • N2이/가 N1에 V + ~이/히/리/기~ + ~아/어 있다
    Includes 쓰이다 (to be written), 놓이다 (to be put), 쌓이다 (to be piled up), 걸리다 (to be spent), 꽂히다 (to be stuck)

스파이더맨 (Spiderman) Examples:



N2이/가 N1에/게 V + ~이/히/리/기~

  • 쫓기다: 범인이 뉴욕에서 블루클린대교 건너서 스파이더맨에게 쫓겼어요.
    The criminals crossing New York’s Brooklyn Bridge were chased by Spiderman.
  • 잡히다: 드디어 그 범인이 스파이더맨에게 잡혔어요.
    Finally, the criminals were caught by Spiderman.
  • 안기다: 여자 범인이 남자 범인에게 안겨요.
    The female criminal was hugged by the male criminal.
  • 읽히다: 경찰이 두 범인에게 미란다 법칙을 읽힐거야.
    Miranda rights are read to the criminals by the police.

N이/가 V + ~이/히/리/기~

  • 들리다: 피터파커는 총 소리가 들리면 언제나 슈퍼히어로로 변신해서 바로 액션을 시작해요.
    Whenever the sound of a gun is heard by Peter Parker, he transforms into Superhero mode and immediately jumps into action.
  • 보이다: 언제나 피터파커가 메리제인을 보인 때 그녀는 큰 문제안에 있서 도움이 필요하죠.
    Whenever Mary Jane is seen by Peter Parker, she’s in the middle of a big problem and needs his help.
  • 바뀌다: 2012년부터 스파이더맨 배우가 바뀌고 새 영화 삼부작을 만들기 시작했어요.
    From 2012, the Spiderman actor was changed and the making of a new trilogy of movies began.
  • 막히다: 항상 큰 도시에서 할리우드 블록버스터 촬영하면 촬영하는 길과 근처가 막혀요.
    Every time a big city undergoes filming for a Hollywood blockbuster, the streets and area surrounding the filming become congested.
  • 팔리다: 어디든지 마벨만화 상품이 팔리는데는 스파이더맨 상품 도 찾을 수 있죠.
    Wherever Marvel comics goods are sold, you can also find Spiderman good.
  • 풀리다: 스파이더맨이 뉴욕에서 타잔처럼 건물사이를 흔들여 가면 스트레스가 풀려요.
    Whenever Spiderman swings between buildings in New York like Tarzan, his stress is released.
  • 끊기다: 새로운 나쁜 적을 멈추기 위해서 뉴욕의 전기가 다 끊겼어요.
    In order to stop the new evil enemy, all of New York’s power was cut off.
  • 열리다: 경찰이 스파이더맨의 적을 잡았을 때 감옥 문이 열렸고 적이 들어갔어요.
    When the police caught Spiderman’s enemy, the door to the jail was opened and the enemy went inside.
  • 잠기다: 스파이더맨의 적이 감옥에 들어갔을 때 문이 잠겼어요.
    When Spiderman’s enemy went into the jail, the door was locked.
  • 닫히다: 그 다음에 감옥의 문들과 앞에 있는 대문이 다 닫혔어요.
    After that, all the doors in the prison and the big gate outside were also shut.

N2이/가 N1에 V + ~이/히/리/기~ + ~아/어 있다

  • 놓이다: 메리제인: “오늘 네가 없었기 때문에 너의 친구 에디가 나를 식당으로 데려 갔는데 꽃이 테이블에 놓여있었어요.”
    Mary Jane: “Since you weren’t around today, your friend Eddie to me to a restaurant where flowers were placed on the table.”
  • 걸리다: “에디의 칭찬이 1시간 반이나 걸렸어요.”
    “Eddie’s compliments took at least one and a half hours.”
  • 꽂히다: “드디어 ‘난 남자친구 있잖아!~’라는 말이 에디의 머리에 꽂혔고 바로 식당에 갔다가 집에 다시 돌아왔어요.”
    “Finally, a note was stuck to Eddie’s head that said, ‘I have a boyfriend!~’ and I immediately left the restaurant and came home.”

**These are notes from Korean Grammar in Use: Intermediate. For more in-depth explanations, buy the book.